Shall (Should) va will (would)

Shall (Should) va will (would) fe’llari

  1. Shall va will fe’llari to‘kis fe’llar emas, chunki ularning faqat ikki- ta shakli bor: hozirgi zamon shakli – shall, will va o‘tgan zamon shakli – should, would. Bu fe’llardan keyin asosiy fe’llar to yuklamasisiz ish- latiladi:
    I shall be busy on Monday.
    He will come soon.
    I said that I should be busy on Monday.
    He said that he would come soon.
    Dushanbada men band bo‘laman. U tezda keladi.
    Dushanbada men band bo‘lishimni aytdim.
    U tezda kelishini aytdi. Og‘zaki nutqda quyidagi qisqartirmalar ishlatiladi:
    I shall
    He will She will We shall You will They will shall not should not
    = I’ll I should
    = he’ll he would
    = she’ll she would
    = we’ll we should
    = you’ll you would
    = they’ll they would = shan’t will not
    = shouldn’t would not
    = I’d
    = he’d
    = she’d
    = we’d
    = you’d
    = they’d
    = won’t
    = wouldn’t
    15
    U buni qiladimi?
    U buni qildimi? Buni men qilmadim.

I shall be free tonight.
Shall I see you tomorrow?
We shall not have an English les- son tomorrow.
Men bu oqshom bo‘sh bo‘laman. Sizni ertaga ko‘ramanmi?
Bizda ertaga ingliz tili darsi yo‘q.
SHALL

  1. Shall 1-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda kelasi zamondagi ish-harakatni ifodalaydi:
    Izoh: AQSHda birinchi shaxsda shall o‘rnida will ishlatiladi, hozir Angliyada ham shunga moyillik bor.
  2. Shall 1-shaxsda so‘roq gaplarda farmoyish, buyruq, ko‘rsatma olish maqsadida ishlatiladi:
    Shall I close the window? Derazani yopaymi?
    Where shall we wait for you? Sizni qayerda kutaylik?
  3. Shall 2 va 3-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda ishlatilib, modal ma’noga ega bo‘ladi va va’dani, buyruqni, po‘pisani, ogohlantirishni bildiradi:
    Tell her that she shall have the books tomorrow.
    You shan’t have any cause for complaint.
    You shall write your exercises at once.
    They shall regret it if they do it.
    Unga ayting, kitoblarni ertaga oladi.
    Sizda shikoyat qilishga hech qan- day asos yo‘q.
    Siz mashqlaringizni darhol yo- zing.
    Agar shunday qilishsa, ular afsuslanishadi.
  4. Javobida shall ishlatish mumkin bo‘lgan so‘roq gaplarda 2-shaxs bilan shall ishlatiladi. Hozir will shallni siqib chiqarmoqda:
    Shall (will) you be eighteen or nineteen tomorrow?
    — I shall be nineteen.
    Shall (will) you have an English or French lesson on Friday?
    — We shall have an English les- son.
    Ertaga o‘n sakkizga kirasizmi yoki o‘n to‘qqizga?
    — O‘n to‘qqizga.
    Juma kuni sizda ingliz tili darsi bo‘ladimi yoki fransuz tili darsimi? — Bizda ingliz tili darsi bo‘ladi.
  5. Shall 3-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda so‘roq gaplarda ishlatiladi va modallashib 3-shaxs uchun farmoyish yoki ko‘rsatma olish maqsadida ishlatiladi:
    When shall they come?
    Shall he wait for you at the hotel?
    16
    Ular qachon kelishsin?
    U sizni mehmonxonada kutsinmi?

I said I should be glad to see him.
I said that we should have a me- eting on Monday.
Men uni ko‘rishdan xursand bo‘li- shimni aytdim.
Men dushanba kuni bizda yig‘ilish bo‘lishini aytdim.
I asked him where I should wait for him.
I asked Nancy whether Tom sho- uld come in the morning.
Men undan uni qayerda kutishim kerakligini so‘radim.
Men Nansidan Tom ertalab keli- shi kerak yoki kerak emasligini so‘radim.
SHOULD

  1. Should (shallning o‘tgan zamoni) Infinitiv bilan birga kelib o‘tgan zamondagi kelasi zamonni (Future in the Past) ni yasashda yordamchi fe’l bo‘lib keladi va ba’zi hollarda modal ma’nosida ham keladi.
  2. Should bosh gapdagi ish-harakat o‘tgan zamonda bo‘lganda, er- gash gapdagi kelasi zamonda kelgan ish-harakatni ifodalash uchun ish- latiladi.
  3. Should 1-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda faqat yordamchi fe’l bo‘lib ke- ladi:
  4. Should 2 va 3-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda ishlatilib va’dani, tahdidni, po‘pisani, buyruqni va boshqalarni ifodalaydi:
    He said that Tom should have the U Tom kitobni bir necha kundan books in a few days. keyin olishini aytdi.
  5. Should 1 va 3-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda bosh gapidagi ish-hara- kat o‘tgan zamonda bo‘lgan o‘zlashtirma gaplarda ishlatiladi va modal ma’noga ega bo‘lib suhbatdoshdan buyruq, topshiriq olishni bildirib za- ruratni ifodalaydi:
  6. Should hozirgi va o‘tgan zamondagi noreal shart gapli qo‘shma gap- larning bosh gapida ishlatiladi:
    I should go there if I had time. We should have caught the train
    Agar vaqtim bo‘lganda men u yer-
    ga borardim.
    Agar tezroq yurganimizda biz
    poyezdga ulgurgan bo‘lar edik. ishlatishga moyillik bor: I would go there if I had time.
  7. Should noreal shart gaplarning ergash gapida taxminning yuz berish ehtimolligining juda kamligini ta’kidlash uchun ishlatiladi:
    2 — M. G‘apporov 17
    if we had walked faster.
    Izoh: AQSHda 1-shaxs bilan ham would ishlatiladi. Angliyada ham should o‘rnida would

If I should come, I shall speak to them about it.
If he should refuse, they would be greatly disappointed.
Agar men kela olsam edi, bu haqda ular bilan gaplashar edim.
Agar u rad etsa, ularning hafsala- lari juda qaytar edi.

  1. Should bosh gaplari it is important muhim, it is necessary kerak, zarur, it is desirable ma’qul, kerak, it is impossible imkoni yo‘q, iloji yo‘q, it is improbable ehtimoldan uzoq, mahol, it is better yaxshisi kabi birikmalar- dan yasalgan bosh gapli qo‘shma gaplarning that bilan bog‘langan ega ergash gaplarida ishlatiladi. Bu holda bosh gapdagi be qaysi zamonda kelishidan qat’i nazar, shoulddan keyin kelgan fe’lning Simple Infinitive shakli to yuklamasisiz keladi:
    It is important that he should re- turn tomorrow.
    It is desirable that the agreement should be signed before May.
    It was necessary that the question should be settled without delay.
    Uning ertaga qaytishi muhim.
    Bitimning may oyidan oldin im- zolanishi muhim.
    Masala kechiktirilmasdan hal qilinishi kerak.
    should + V
    Izoh: 1. It is possible mumkin, balki, it is probable aftidan, balki, ehtimol birikmalaridan keyin bo‘lishli gaplarda may (might) + V ishlatiladi, so‘roq gaplarda should + V ishlatiladi:
    It is possible that the steamer may arrive tomorrow.
    Is it possible that the steamer should arrive
    tomorrow?
  2. Bu vaziyatda (ayniqsa AQSHda) ko‘pincha shoud + V o‘rnida Present Subjunctive
    (istak mayli) ishlatiladi:
    It is important that he return (=should return) tomorrow.
    It is desirable that the agreement be signed (=should be signed) before May.
  3. Bu vaziyatda ergash gap o‘rnida ko‘pincha qurilmasi ishlatiladi:
    It is important for him to return tomorrow. = It is important that he should return tomorrow. It is desirable for the agreement to be signed before May. = It is desirable that the agreement should be signed before May.
    It is surprising hayratomuz, qiziq, it is annoying alam qilarli, attang, afsus, it is strange ajib, g‘alati, it is a pity achinarli kabi ajablanishni, alamni, xursandchilikni, afsuslanishni bildiradigan birikmalardan keyin should + V ham, fe’lning aniq mayli ham ishlatilishi mumkin:
    Ehtimol poroxod ertaga yetib keladi.
    Poroxod ertaga yetib kelishi mum-
    kinmi?
    for + ot (olmosh) +to + V
    It is surprising that he should think so.
    It is surprising that he thinks so.
    Uning bunday o‘ylashi g‘alati.
    18

Har ikkala ergash gap ham bir xil kuchga ega, ammo should + V ajab- lanish, afsuslanish, rahmni kuchaytiradi.
Yuqoridagi shaxsi noma’lum iboralardan keyin should Simple Infini- tive bilan ham, Perfect Infinitive bilan ham ishlatiladi. Agar ergash gap- dagi ish-harakat bosh gapdagi ish-harakat bilan bir vaqtda sodir bo‘lgan bo‘lsa, should + V ishlatiladi, agar ergash gapdagi ish-harakat bosh gapdagi ish-harakatdan oldin sodir bo‘lgan bo‘lsa, should + have + P.P. ishlatiladi:
It is strange that he should behave
so.
It is strange that he should have be-
haved so.

  1. Bosh gapida decide qaror qilmoq, demand, require talab qilmoq, in- sist qattiq turib talab qilmoq, bajartirmoq, qildirmoq, advise maslahat ber- moq, recommend tavsiya qilmoq, suggest, propose taklif qilmoq, agree ke- lishmoq, ko‘nmoq, arrange bitimga kelmoq, kelishmoq, order, command buyurmoq kabi qat’iyatni, astoydillikni, talabni, maslahatni, bitishuvni, buyruqni ifodalagan fe’llar kelgan qo‘shma gapning to‘ldiruvchi ergash gapida should ishlatiladi. Bosh gapdagi fe’l qaysi zamonda bo‘lishidan qat’i nazar, barcha shaxslarning birlik va ko‘pligida should + V ishlati- ladi:
    He suggested that the case should be postponed.
    He recommended that the goods should be shipped at once.
    The doctor insists that he should go to the South.
    The sellers demand that payment should be made within five days.
    He ordered that the steamer should be discharged at once.
    U ishning kechiktirilishini taklif qildi.
    U mollarning zudlik bilan yukla- nishini tavsiya qildi.
    Doktor uning janubga borishini qattiq turib talab qildi. Sotuvchilar to‘lovni besh kun ichida amalga oshirishni talab qilishdi.
    U poroxoddagi yukni zudlik bi- lan tushirishni buyurdi.
    Izoh: Yuqoridagi fe’llardan keyin (ayniqsa AQSHda) should + V ham, Present Subjanktiv ham ishlatiladi:
    The sellers demanded that payment be made (=should be made) within five days. He ordered that the steamer be discharged (= should be dischsrged) at once.
  2. Bosh gapdagi kesim afsuslanishni, ajablanishni, g‘azabni, xursand- chilikni bildiruvchi fe’llardan yasalgan bo‘lsa, ularning zamonidan qat’i nazar, ergash gapning kesimida birlik va ko‘plikda should ishlatiladi:
    19
    Uning o‘zini bunday tutishi g‘alati.
    Uning o‘zini bunday tutganligi g‘alati.

I am sorry that you should think so.
I regret that you should not know it.
Sizning bunday o‘ylashingiz meni afsuslantiradi.
Buni bilmasligingiz meni afsuslan- tiradi.
Agar ergash gapdagi ish-harakat bosh gapdagi ish-harakat bilan bir vaqtda sodir bo‘lgan bo‘lsa, should + V ishlatiladi, agar ergash gapdagi ish-harakat bosh gapdagi ish-harakatdan oldin sodir bo‘lgan bo‘lsa, should + have + P.P. ishlatiladi:
I am disappointed that he should work so little at his English.
I am disappointed that he should have worked so little at his Eng- lish.
I was surprised that he should be- have so.
I was surprised that he should have behaved so.
Uning ingliz tili ustida bunchalik oz ishlashi mening ko‘nglimni
qoldiradi.
Uning ingliz tili ustida bunchalik
kam ishlaganligi mening ko‘ng- limni qoldiradi.
Uning o‘zini bunday tutishi meni hayron qoldirdi.
Uning o‘zini bunday tutganligi
meni hayron qoldirdi.
Bunday ergash gaplarda should + V bilan bir qatorda fe’lning aniq mayli ham ishlatiladi:
I am surprised that he should not Uning o‘z xatosini tushunmas- realize his mistake. ligi meni ajablantiradi.
I am surprised that he does not real-
ize his mistake.
Har ikkala ergash gap ham deyarli teng ma’noli; ammo sould + V afsuslanish, ajablanish va boshqalarni kuchaytiradi.

  1. Bosh gapdagi fe’lning zamonidan qat’i nazar, maqsad ergash gapda barcha shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda should +V ishlatiladi:
    I’ll ring him up at once so that he shouldn’t wait for me.
    I’ll open the widow so that it should be cooler in the room.
    U kutib turmasligi uchun men unga zudlik bilan qo‘ng‘iroq qilaman. Xona salqin bo‘lsin deb derazani ochaman.
  2. Why bilan boshlangan ko‘chirma va o‘zlashtirma so‘roq gaplarda ajablanish, hayratni ifodalash uchun should ishlatiladi:
    Why should you dislike him so much?
    Why should you think that he is not capable of doing this work?
    Nima uchun uni bunchlik yoq- tirmaysiz?
    Nima uchun siz uni bu ishni qila olmaydi deb o‘ylaysiz?
    20

I don’t understand why you should Undan nima uchun achchig‘lani- be angry with him. shingizga men tushunmayman.

  1. Should axloqiy burchni yoki maslahatni ifodalaydi:
    a) ish-harakat hozirgi yoki kelasi zamonga taalluqli bo‘lsa, should + V ishlatiladi:
    You should call on him tomor- row.
    He should help them.
    You shouldn’t go there.
    Siz unikiga ertaga borishingiz ke- rak.
    U ularga yordam berishi kerak. Siz u yerga bormasligingiz kerak.
    b) ish-harakat o‘tgan zamonga taalluqli bo‘lib, biror shaxs o‘z burchi- ni bajarmagan hamda gapiruvchining fikricha noto‘g‘ri ish qilgan bo‘lsa, should + have + P.P. ishlatiladi va tanbehni yoki ta’nani ifodalaydi:
    He should have helped them.
    You shouldn’t have gone there yes-
    terday.
    WILL
  2. Will 2 va 3-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda kelasi zamonni yasashda yordamchi fe’l bo‘lib keladi:
    He will come to London soon.
    Will you have a meeting tomorrow?
    You will see him tonight.
    U yaqinda Londonga keladi. Ertaga sizlarda yig‘ilish bo‘la- dimi?
    Siz uni bu oqshom ko‘rasiz.
  3. Will 1-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda modal ma’nosida ishlatiladi va kelasi zamondagi istakni, xohishni, maqsadni, rozilikni yoki va’dani ifoda- laydi:
    I will call on you tomorrow. Men ertaga siznikiga kirib o‘ta-man.
    We will help him. Biz unga yordam beramiz. 3. Will iltimosni ifodalash uchun ishlatiladi:
    Will you close the window?
    Will you pass me the salt?
    Won’t you have a glass of water?
    Derazani yoping, iltimos. Tuzni uzatib yuborasizmi? Bir stakan suv ichmaysizmi?
    21
    U ularga yordam berishi kerak edi.
    Siz kecha u yerga bormasligin- giz kerak edi.

I said I would help him.
We said that we would come to see
him.
Men unga yordam berishimni
aytdim.
Biz uni ko‘rgani kelishimizni
aytdik.
WOULD

  1. Would (will fe’lining o‘tgan zamon shakli bo‘lib) qo‘shma gapning bosh gapidagi fe’l o‘tgan zamonda bo‘lganda ergash gapda, 2 va 3-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda ishlatiladi:
    He said that he would come soon.
    I told him that you would leave
    London on Monday.
  2. Would 1-shaxs birlik va ko‘plikda modal ma’nosida ishlatiladi va maqsadni, istakni yoki kelishuvni ifodalaydi:
  3. Would noreal shart gapli ergash gaplarning bosh gapida ishlati- ladi:
    He would go there if he had time. You would have caught the train if
    you had walked faster.
    Agar uning vaqti bo‘lsa, u yerga
    borar edi.
    Agar tezroq yurganingizda po-
    yezdga ulgurgan bo‘lar edingiz.
  4. Would bo‘lishsiz gaplarda ishlatilib, o‘tgan zamonda biror ishni qilishni qattiq istamaslikni ifodalaydi:
    He tried to persuade me, but I wouldn’t listen to him.
    I asked him several times to give up smoking, but he wouldn’t.
    U meni ishontirishga harakat qi- lardi lekin men unga also quloq
    solmasdim.
    Men unga bir necha marta che- kishni tashlashni aytdim, lekin u tashlamadi.
  5. Would o‘tgan zamonda takrorlanib turgan ish-harakatni ifoda- laydi:
    He would sit for hours on the shore and (would) look at the sea.
    I would call on him on my way home.
    U qirg‘oqda soatlab o‘tirar va dengizga tikilar edi.
    Men uyga qaytishda unikiga ki- rib turar edim.
    Bu yerda wouldning ma’nosi used toning ma’nosiga yaqinlashadi, le- kin used to ko‘proq ishlatiladi.
  6. Would iltimosni ifodalaydi:
    Would you mind passing me the salt?
    Menga tuzni uzatib yuborasiz- mi?
    22
    U tezda kelishini aytdi.
    Men unga siz dushanba kuni Lon- dondan jo‘nashingizni aytdim.

Would you tell me the time, please? Iltimos, vaqtni aytib yubora olmaysizmi?

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