Yordamchi fe’llar (Auxiliary verbs)

Umumiy ma’lumotlar

  1. To be, to have, to do, shall (should), will (would) fe’llari yordam- chi (Auxiliary Verbs) fe’llar deyiladi, chunki ular yordamida fe’lning turli murakkab shakllari yasaladi. Yuqoridagi fe’llar Simple Present va Simple Past zamonlarining bo‘lishli shaklidan tashqari barcha fe’l zamonlarini yasashda ishlatiladi. Yordamchi fe’llarning mustaqil ma’nosi bo‘lmaydi, ma’noni ular bilan birga kelgan asosiy fe’llar beradi. Ular zamonni, shaxsni, sonni, nisbatni va boshqalarni ifodalashda ishlatiladi:
    I am reading.
    They have come.
    Do you speak English? He will return soon.
    Men o‘qiyapman.
    Ular kelishdi.
    Siz inglizcha gapirasizmi? U tezda qaytadi.
  2. Ba’zan to be, to have, shall (should), will (would) fe’llari modal fe’l ma’nosida kelib zaruratni, istakni, niyatni ifodalaydi.
  3. Ba’zan to be bo‘lmoq, to have ega bo‘lmoq, to do qilmoq fe’llari ma’nosida asosiy fe’l bo‘lib ham keladi.
    TO BE FE’LI
  4. Boshqa fe’llardan farq qilib to be fe’lining Simple Presentda 1-shaxs birlikda, 3-shaxs birlikda va ko‘plikda alohida-alohida shakllari mavjud: I am, he (she, it) is, we (you, they) are.
  5. To be fe’lining Simple Past zamonda birlik va ko‘plik uchun alohida shakllari mavjud: I (he, she, it) was, we (you, they) were.
  6. Bo‘lishsiz gaplar yasashda to be fe’lining tegishli shaklidan keyin not inkor yuklamasi qo‘yiladi: I am not, I was not.
  7. So‘roq gaplar yasashda to be fe’lining shakli egadan oldinga o‘tka- ziladi: Am I? Was I?
    6
  8. To be fe’li faqat ikkita davom zamonda ishlatiladi: Present Continuous va Past Continuousda va asosan majhul nisbatda: I am being invited, I was being invited.
  9. To be fe’li Perfect Continuous zamonlarida ishlatilmaydi.
  10. To be fe’lining bo‘lishsiz buyruq shakli umumiy qoidaga asosan, uning oldiga do not (don’t)ni qo‘yish bilan yasaladi:
    Don’t be angry. Achchig‘ingiz kelmasin. Don’t be late. Kechikmang.
  11. Og‘zaki nutqda Simple Presentning bo‘lishli shaklida odatda quyidagi qisqartirmalar yuz beradi:
    I am =I’m
    you are = you’re He is =he’s
    She is = she’s
    We are = we’re You are = you’re
    They are = they’re
    It is = it’s
    Simple Present va Simple Past zamonlarda quyidagi qisqartirishlar yuz
    beradi:
    I am not = I’m not
    He is not = he’s not yoki he isn’t
    She is not = she’s not yoki she isn’t
    It is not = it’s not yoki it isn’t
    We are not = we’re not yoki we aren’t
    You are not = you’re not yoki you aren’t
    They are not = they’re not yoki they aren’t
    I (he, she, it) was not = I (he, she, it) wasn’t
    We (you, they) were not = we(you, they) weren’t
  12. To be fe’li yordamchi fe’l bo‘lib keladi:
    I shall be working at three o’clock.
    It has been raining since morning.
    b) O‘tgan zamon sifatdoshi (Past Participle) bilan birga kelib majhul nisbatning barcha zamonlarini yasaydi:
    a) Hozirgi zamon sifatdoshi (Present Participle) bilan birga kelib bar- cha davom (Continuous va Perfect Continuous) zamonlarni yasashda ish- latiladi:
    I am writing a letter.
    She was doing her lessons at five.
    7
    Men xat yozyapman.
    U soat beshda darslarini qila- yotgan edi.
    Men soat uchda ishlayotgan bo‘- laman.
    Ertalabdan buyon yomg‘ir yog‘- yapti.

He is often invited there.
He was asked a difficult question. The translation will be finished to- morrow.
Uni u yerga tez-tez taklif qili- shadi.
Undan qiyin savol so‘rashdi. Tarjima ertaga tamom qilinadi.

  1. To be fe’li ot-kesimlarda bog‘lovchi bo‘lib keladi va -dir, edi, bo‘- ladi deb tarjima qilinadi. O‘zbek tilida hozirgi zamonda ko‘pincha tushib
    qoladi:
    He is an engineer.
    He is the best student in the first
    course.
    The story was interesting.
    She will be a teacher next year. The task of our representatives was to ship the goods immediately.
    U — muhandis.
    U birinchi kursda eng yaxshi ta-
    laba.
    Hikoya qiziq edi.
    U kelasi yili o‘qituvchi bo‘ladi. Vakillarimizning vazifasi mollarni zudlik bilan yuklash edi.
  2. To be fe’li asosiy fe’l bo‘lib keladi va bo‘lmoq, joylashmoq ma’nosini beradi:
    He is at the Institute now.
    She was in Samarkand during the summer.
    I shall be at home tonight.
    U hozir institutda.
    U yozda Samarqandda edi.
    Men bu oqshom uyda bo‘laman.
    Hozirgi zamon bo‘lishsiz shaklda to be fe’li emas deb tarjima qilinadi: He isn’t at home. U uyda emas.
    They are not in London. Ular Londonda emas.
  3. To be fe’li asosiy fe’lning to yuklamasi bilan kelgan shakli bilan kelib modallashadi va oldindan kelishilgan yoki rejalashtirilgan zaruratni ifodalaydi:
    Bu yerda: V = fe’lning asosiy shakli.
    To bening hozirgi zamondagi shakllari am, is, are kerak deb tarjima qilinadi va hozirgi yoki kelasi zamondagi zaruratni ifodalaydi:
    am
    is
    are + to + V was
    were
    They are to begin this work at
    once.
    He is to come here tomorrow.
    Ular bu ishni darhol boshlashlari
    kerak.
    U bu yerga ertaga kelishi kerak.
    8

To bening o‘tgan zamondagi shakllari was, were Simple Infinitive bilan kelganda kerak edi deb tarjima qilinadi va ish-harakatni o‘tgan zamonda bajarish zaruratini ifodalaydi. Bu birikma shu ish-harakatning bajarilgan- bajarilmaganligiga aniqlik kiritmaydi va bu butun gapdan ma’lum bo‘lishi mumkin:
I was to send him a telegram, but I forgot.
The goods were to be delivered at the end of the month.
Men unga telegramma yuborishim kerak edi, lekin unutibman.
Mollar oyning oxirida yetkazib be- rilishi kerak edi.
Was, were Perfect Infinitive bilan kelganda o‘tgan zamonda bajarilishi kerak bo‘lgan, lekin bajarilmagan ish-harakatni ifodalaydi:
Was

  • to + have + P.P.
    Were
    I was to have finished my work yesterday.
    Bu yerda:
    P. P. = Past Particiciple = O‘tgan zamon sifatdoshi.
    Men ishimni kecha tugatishim kerak edi.
    Kelasi zamonda to be zaruratni ifodalash uchun ishlatilmaydi.
    Izoh: To bedan keyin majhul nisbatning infinitivi kelib, zaruratdan tashqari ehtimollikni
    ham ifodalashi mumkin.
    Such books are to be found in all libraries.
    Many new beautiful buildings are to be seen in the streets of our town.
    Bundaykitoblarbarchakutubxonalardan topilishi mumkin.
    Shahrimiz ko‘chalarida ko‘p yangi chiroyli binolarni ko‘rish mumkin.
    TO HAVE FE’LI
  1. To have fe’lining Simple Presentda ikkita shakli bor: 3-shaxs bir- likda has — he (she, it) has va qolganlar uchun have — I (we, you, they) have.
  2. To have fe’li faqat to have dinner, to have a talk kabi birikmalarda kelganda davom zamonlarda ishlatiladi:
    He was having dinner when I ca- me.
    He is having a talk with his father in the garden.
    Men kelganimda u ovqatlanayot- gan edi.
    U bog‘da otasi bilan suhbat- lashayapti.
  3. To have fe’li yordamchi fe’l bo‘lib keladi va o‘tgan zamon sifatdoshi (Past Partisiple) bilan birga kelib Perfect zamonlarni yasaydi.
    9 I have seen the new film.
    I had finished my work by five o’clock.
    I shall have translated the article by ten o’clock.
    Men yangi filmni ko‘rdim.
    Men ishimni beshgacha tugatgan edim.
    Men soat o‘ngacha maqolani tar- jima qilib bo‘laman.
    Have
    Has + P. P. Had
    Shall (will) have
    Present Perfect va Past Perfectda quyidagi qisqartirmalar ishla- tiladi:
    I have written = I’ve written; I have not written = I’ve not written = I haven’t written; He has written = he’s written; he has not written = he’s not written = he hasn’t written; I had written = I’d written; I had not writ- ten = I’d not written = I hadn’t written va hok.
  4. To have fe’li bor bo‘lmoq, ega bo‘lmoq ma‘nosida asosiy fe’l bo‘lib keladi:
    I have a good watch.
    He had a large library.
    We shall soon have a new radio set.
    Mening yaxshi soatim bor.
    Uning katta kutubxonasi bor edi. Bizda yaqinda yangi radiopriyom- nik bo‘ladi.
  5. So‘roq shaklni yasashda Simple Present va Simple Pastda to have fe’lining tegishli shakli eganing oldiga o‘tadi:
    Have you a good watch? Yaxshi soatingiz bormi? Hadhealargelibrary? Uning katta kutubxonasi bor edi-
    mi?
    Ammo Simple Pastning so‘roq shakli ko‘pincha to do yordamchi fe’li yordamida ham yasaladi:
    Didhehavealargelibrary? Uning katta kutubxonasi bor edi- mi?
  6. To have fe’lining bo‘lishsiz shakli uning sahkllaridan keyin not yuklamasini qo‘yib qisqartirish orqali yasaladi. Simple Present va Simp- le Pastda qisqartmalar haven’t, hasn’t, hadn’t bo‘ladi. Ulardan keyin donalab sanaladigan birlikdagi ot noaniq artikl bilan, ko‘plikdagi dona- lab sanaladigan ot va donalab sanalmaydigan ot any olmoshi bilan ish- latiladi:
    10

I haven’t a watch.
He hasn’t any books on this sub-
ject.
I hadn’t any time to go there.
Mening soatim yo‘q.
Unda bu sohada kitoblar yo‘q.
Mening u yerga borishga vaqtim yo‘q.
Barcha murakkab shakllarda bo‘lishsizlik not birinchi yordamchi fe’ldan keyin qo‘yiladi:
I shall not (shan’t) have any time to go there tomorrow.
I have not (haven’t) had any time to go there today.
Bo‘lishsiz gaplar no olmoshi yordamida ham yasalishi mumkin. Bun-
da no otdan oldin qo‘yiladi va otning oldida artikl ham, any olmoshi ham qo‘yilmaydi:
I have no watch.
He has no books on this subject.
I had no time to go there.
I’ll have no time to go there tomorrow. I’ve had no time to go there today.
Bo‘lishsizlikning have (has, had) no shakli ko‘proq ishlatiladi. Fe’lning bo‘lishsiz shakli esa gapning bo‘lishsizlik ma’nosini oshirishda ishlatiladi.
Qisqa javob faqat not yuklamasi bilan yasaladi: Have you a dictionary? – No, I haven’t (have not).

  1. Og‘zaki nutqda to have fe’li o‘rnida hozirgi zamonda have (has) got ishlatiladi: I have = I have got = I’ve got, he (she) has = he (she) has got = he’s got, she’s got:
    I’ve got a large library = I have a large library.
    Has he got a good dictionary? = Has he a good dictionary?
    I haven’t got an English dictionary. = I have no English dictionary.
    Menda katta kutubxona bor. Uning yaxshi lug‘ati bormi? Menda inglizcha lug‘at yo‘q.
    Agar to‘ldiruvchi kishilik olmoshidan yasalgan bo‘lsa, bo‘lishsiz gap- larda haven’t, hasn’t emas faqat haven’t got va hasn’t got ishlatiladi.
    I haven’t got it. Undan menda yo‘q. He hasn’t got them. Ulardan unda yo‘q.
  2. To have fe’li qator otlar bilan birikib keladi va o‘zining dastlabki bor (ega) bo‘lmoq ma’nosini yo‘qotadi:
    11

to have dinner – ovqatlanmoq
to have breakfast – nonushta qil-
moq
to have supper – kechki ovqatni
yemoq
to have a talk – gaplashmoq, muzo-
kara olib bormoq
to have a good time – vaqtni yaxshi o‘tkazmoq

  1. Yuqoridagi iboralarning so‘roq va bo‘lishsiz shakllari Simple Pre- sent va Simple Pastda to do yordamchi fe’li yordamida yasaladi:
    When do you have dinner?
    Did you have a good rest last sum- mer?
    We didn’t have supper at home yesterday.
    Qachon tushlik qilasiz?
    O‘tgan yozda yaxshi dam oldin- gizmi?
    Biz kecha kechki ovqatni uyda yemadik.
  2. To have fe’li to yuklamali infinitive bilan kelib, biror tashqi kuch ta’siridagi zaruratni ifodalaydi va majbur bo‘lmoq, to‘g‘ri kelmoq deb tar- jima qilinadi:
    to have a rest – dam olmoq to have a walk – sayr qilmoq
    to have a smoke – chekmoq
    to have a quarrel – janjallash-
    moq
    have
    has
    had
    shall have will have
  • to + V
    I have to get up early on Mondays.
    They had to go there.
    He will have to do it.
    Izoh: Had to o‘tgan zamonda bajarilishi kerak bo‘lgan va bajarilgan ish-harakatni
    ifodalaydi.
    Simple Present va Simple Pastda to have fe’li zaruratni ifodalaganda so‘roq va bo‘lishsiz shakllari to do yordamchi fe’lining tegishli shakllari
    yordamida yasaladi:
    Do you have to write this exercise? You don’t have to write this exercise.
    Did they have to go there?
    They didn’t have to go there.
    Bu mashqni yozishingiz kerakmi? Sizga bu mashqni yozish shart emas.
    Ular u yerga borishlari kerak edi- mi?
    Ularning u yerga borishlariga to‘g‘ri kelmadi.
    12
    Dushanba kunlari men erta turi- shimga to‘g‘ri keladi.
    Ular u yerga borishga majbur bo‘- lishdi.
    U buni qilishga majbur bo‘ladi.
  1. Og‘zaki nutqda have va has o‘rnida zaruratni ifodalashda have got, has got ham ishlatiladi:
    I’ve got (have got) to do it. Men buni qilishga majburman. He’s got (has got) to write it. U buni yozishi kerak.
  2. To have fe’li to have + ot (yoki olmosh) + Past Participle birik- masida ishlatiladi va ish-harakat ega tomonidan emas, ega uchun boshqa shaxs tomonidan bajarilishini ifodalaydi:
    have
    has
    had
    shall have will have
    + ot (olmosh) + P. P.
    I have my hair cut at this hairdres- ser’s.
    I had my watch repaired yester- day.
    I shall have the letters posted im- mediately.
    Men shu sartaroshxonada soch ol- diraman.
    Kecha men soatimni tuzatdim.
    Men xatlarni zudlik bilan jo‘na- taman.
    Bu birikmada Simple Present va Simple Pastning so‘roq va bo‘lishsiz shakllari to do fe’lining tegishli shakllari yordamida yasaladi:
    Do you have your hair cut at this hairdresser’s? I don’t have my hair cut at this hairdresser’s. Did you have the letters posted yesterday?
    I didn’t have the letters posted yesterday.
  3. To have fe’li
    ishlatiladi va niyatni, maqsadni, xohishni ifodalaydi:
    birikmasida
    to have + ot (yoki olmosh) + to + V
    I have something to tell you. Mening sizga aytadigan gapim bor.
    I have a new book to show you. Menda sizga ko‘rsatadigan yangi kitob bor.
    So‘roq va bo‘lishsiz shakllari to do fe’lisiz yasaladi: Have you anything to tell me?
    I haven’t anything to tell you.
    Izoh: AQSHda to havening Simple Present va Simple Pastdagi so‘roq va bo‘lishsiz shakllari to do fe’lining shakllari yordamida yasaladi, Buyuk Britaniyada ham shunga moyillik bor.
    Does he have a good library?
    I don’t have anything to show you.
    Unda yaxshi kutubxona bormi?
    Menda sizga ko‘rsatadigan hech narsa yo‘q.
    13

TO DO FE’LI

  1. To do fe’li aniq va majhul nisbatning barcha zamonlarida umumiy qoidalar asosida tuslanadi. Uning Simple Presentda III shaxs birlikda does va qolgan shaxs va sonlar uchun do, Simple Pastda did shakli mavjud.
  2. To do fe’lining shakllari yordamchi va modal fe’llardan tashqari barcha fe’llarning Simple Present va Simple Past zamonlardagi bo‘lishsiz va so‘roq shakllarini yasashda yordamchi fe’l vazifasida keladi:
    Do you speak English?
    He doesn’t work here.
    Did you see him yesterday?
    They didn’t speak to me about it.
    Siz inglizcha gapirasizmi?
    U bu yerda ishlamaydi.
    Siz uni kecha ko‘rdingizmi? Ular men bilan bu haqda gapla- shishmadi.
  3. To do fe’li buyruq gaplarning bo‘lishsiz shaklini yasash uchun yor- damchi fe’l bo‘lib ishlatiladi:
    Don’t go there. U yerga bormang.
    Don’t open the window. Derazani ochmang.
    To be va to have fe’llarining bo‘lishsiz buyruq shakllari ham do yor- damchi fe’li yordamida yasaladi:
    Don’t be angry. Achchig‘lanmang.
    Don’t have anything to do with U bilan o‘ralashmang.
    him.
  4. Simple Present va Simple Pastda bo‘lishli gaplarda fe’lning ma’nosi- ni kuchaytirish uchun fe’lning asosiy shakli oldida do, does, did ishlati- ladi:
    — I am sorry you don’t know my brother.
    — But I do know him.
    — Why doesn’t he go to the read- ing-room?
    — But he does go there very often.
    — Why didn’t you speak to him?
    — But I did speak to him.
    — Afsus, akamni bilmaysiz.
    — Axir, men uni taniyman. Nima uchun u o‘quv zaliga bormaydi?
    — Axir u u yerga tez-tez borib turadi.
    — Nima uchun siz u bilan gaplashmadingiz?
    — Axir men u bilan gaplashdim.
  5. To do fe’li buyruq gaplardagi iltimosni kuchaytirish ma’nosida hamma fe’llardan oldin, shu jumladan, to be, to have fe’llaridan oldin ishlatiladi:
    14

Do come tonight.
Do write to me a few lines.
Do have another cup of tea. Do be reasonable.
Bu oqshom albatta keling.
Albatta menga bir enlik xat yozib yuboring.
Yana bir piyola choy iching. Mulohazali bo‘ling. (O‘ylab ish qiling.)

  1. To do fe’li qilmoq, bajarmoq ma’nosida asosiy fe’l bo‘lib keladi:
    He has done his exercises. U mashqlarini bajardi.
    They will do their work tonight. Ular ishlarini bu oqshom qili-
    shadi.
    Simple Present va Simple Pastda bo‘lishsiz va so‘roq gaplarda to do- ning shakli ikki marta ishlatiladi — bir marta yordamchi fe’l sifatida, ikkinchi marta asosiy fe’l sifatida:

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